By: Luis A. Marrero, M.A, RODP.
July 27, 2015. (Updated June 26, 2018)
Background and Origins
The use of work as a source of learning is not new. Theory and models in the field of quality, Peter Senge’s “Learning Organizations”, Kurt Lewin’s “Action Research” and Harold Bridger’s Tavistock “Double Task” are some examples of methods where work becomes a resource for discovery, learning and improvement. Logoteleology or meaningful purpose psychology – a pragmatic existential positive school of psychology – offers that life itself is a source and a resource for such discovery, learning and improvement. Moreover, not only is life a source for meaningful growth and well-being, personal continuous improvement (becoming our best) is precisely life’s raison d’être: to improve things and to bring out the best in ourselves and in others (Logoteleology follows the eudaimonic approach).
While empirical research through traditional controlled laboratory conditions in academia has played a significant role advancing the social sciences, logoteleology also asserts there is value in applying the scientific method to life’s daily events. Life is the ultimate school for insight, learning, and positive growth. For that reason, action research is fundamental to the method. Here, a group of volunteers agree to apply themselves to a genuine life task (e.g., a process of accomplishing a worthwhile goal) — in order to be the subjects of study, and to be the researchers of their behavior. The ultimate goal is to deepen insight at different levels in order to improve. For instance, a new group on its forming stages would agree to carry out its regular task, and to use a rigorous and responsible method to self-observe, self-reflect, and self-improve (e.g. build self-efficacy) in order to practice meaningful self-regulation. The aim of course is not self-regulation per se; rather it is to live a meaningful life. This applies, for instance, to a work team as well as to a couple committed to building a meaningful family.
One element that sets logoteleology apart from other theories (among other factors beyond our scope here) is its pragmatic existential view. In logoteleology the human experience is about embracing a transcendental meaning – or a meaningful (positive and life enhancing) purpose to live for – in order to fulfill a meaningful legacy. All life’s experiences, including work, are opportunities to express our meaningful lives’ purposes. In logoteleology, humans’ ultimate life task is to enjoy a meaningful and therefore rich and positive existence.
Because there is no value or positive benefit in following a meaningless path, logoteleology is not apologetic about rejecting what empirically proven research and common sense affirms is harmful to humans and the environment. Hence, the individual’s or group’s meaningful purpose becomes life’s guiding compass and, as such, defines and follows positive standards, competencies and attitudes in order to succeed and to thrive. As with any self-regulating system with clear goals and standards, Meaningful Purpose Psychology leverages humans’ logoteleological or meaning discrepancy-reducing processes to flourish. More specifically, logoteleological processes thrive to reduce meaning discrepancy and increase meaning accuracy. Meaning is how something, someone, or a situation is defined, described or understood. This paper introduces Logoteleology or Meaningful Purpose Psychology (MPP), and offers methods for discovery, learning, and improvement through tasks. In it, I will use the terms “Logoteleology” and “Meaningful Purpose Psychology” interchangeably.
A Brief Introduction to Logoteleology
Meaningful Purpose Psychology (MPP) or Logoteleology is the scientific study of the meanings that enable people and institutions to thrive and to succeed. Logoteleology comes from three Greek words:
- Logo (λόγος), which stands for reason, meaning or cause.
- Thelos, (θέλω), defined as will.
- Telos (τέλος, σκοπός), signifying end or purpose.
MPP was influenced by a number of psychology schools: primarily (but not limited to) Positive Psychology, Self-Regulation Psychology, Identity Theory, psychological theories of motivation, Viktor Frankl’s logotherapy, and (non-philosophical) teleology. For a comprehensive list of sources, please refer to my book, The Path to a Meaningful Purpose: Psychological Foundations of Logoteleology. It is important to point out that while influenced by empirical research from multiple schools of psychology, MPP is considered a separate field of study with its own propositions. Here are just a few of those propositions and definitions.
(Proposition 10) The individual’s meanings – conscious or not – influence every psychological process. Viktor Frankl defined meaning as “what is meant, be it by a person who asks me a question, or by a situation which, too, implies a question and calls for an answer.” And, “There is only one meaning to each situation, and this is its true meaning.” (Frankl, 1998)[i] Thus, meaning is how something, someone, or a situation is defined, described or understood. In logoteleology science, meanings have a construct of six meaning types:
- Attribute: an inherent characteristic or quality of a person. It answers the sample question, “What qualities and characteristics best describe me?”
- Beliefs: a firmly held opinion or conviction, a view of what is true or real. It answers the sample question, “What do I accept as true?”
- Attitude: the learned, relatively stable tendency to respond to people, concepts, objects, and events in an evaluative way. It answers the sample question, “What is my outlook toward life and situations?”
- Value: the operating etiquette, manners, rules, norms, moral and ethical principles guiding decision-making and choice selection. Value describes what is appropriate, correct, civil, and virtuous. It answers the sample question, “What is the ethical path?”
- Feelings: describe how we feel about something or someone. Feelings also allow us to “sense” our environment and its meaning. Feelings mean something. It answers the sample question, “What is the meaning of what I am sensing?”
- Aims: aspirational strivings; an unfulfilled want, intention or desire. It answers the sample question, “What will I commit to do with my life?”
Meaning types organize themselves into meaning sets. (autorluismarrero / July 17, 2017) To expand, a meaning set is a collection of organized meanings that highlight the uniqueness of a person’s identity (i.e. an individual’s psychological DNA), and provide the platform and lens whence we interpret and face people and situations.
“The meaning set ultimately defines a person’s quality and vitality of life. Moreover, as in the case of DNA, meaning sets are meaning strands with the psychological instructions used to develop and function. Therefore, meaning sets are made of meanings and operators (e.g., if….then).”
There are two types of meaning sets: identity and situational. Identity meaning set holds the unique psychological signature of the individual” “What makes me, me.” A situational meaning set holds the meaning given to particular situations: “I feel a headache. I believe it was caused by me not being hydrated. Why am I so dumb that do I do this to myself (attribution and [negative] attitude)? I know I should be taking better care of my body (value). Let me drink water. (aim)”
Researcher Dr. Carol Dweck shared that “people develop beliefs that organize their world and give meaning to their experience.”
Meaning sets can be harmonious or dissonant. The logoteleology method is committed to foster harmony and reduce conditions that lead to dissonance. As will be explained below, it is done through meaning discrepancy-reducing processes as well as by approaches that increase meaning accuracy.
Logoteleologists propose that people give a meaning to the self, to others and to situations; and based on those meanings — as free-willed agents — individuals inevitably take a particular action.
The Teleological Nature of Humans
As has been long recognized, humans are also teleological in the sense that “We are goal-authors and goal-directors.” The pioneer of Individual Psychology, Alfred Adler, believed that humans attempt
“….to understand that mysterious creative power of life which expresses itself in the desire to develop, to strive, to achieve, and even to compensate for defeats in one direction by striving for success in another. This power is teleological, it expresses itself in the striving after a goal, and, in this striving, every bodily and psychological movement is made to cooperate.”
More recently, Gestalt’s Mary Ann Huckabay shared that humans “display purposeful, teleological, or goal-oriented behavior.” Finally, Richlack offers, “A human teleology suggests people behave for the sake of reasons, purposes, and intentions.” In Logoteleology purposes fulfill meanings. Meaning sets are the field of organized abstractions, such as ideas, feelings, beliefs, concepts and intentions; and purpose is the field of competencies. Meanings intend, and purposes fulfill. Logical Learning theory describes purpose as “the aim of the meaning… purpose may be thought of as the reason a certain intention is enacted.” In other words, meanings set the agenda.
Purpose is part of an identity’s (logoteleological) guidance system that monitors behaviors, solves problems, fulfills meanings, gives meaning to one’s life, and creates meanings for self and others.
The Meaningful and the Meaningless
(Proposition 13) There are answers to life’s challenges through meaningful purpose. Leveraging current empirical research, logoteleology concluded that human’s yearn and strive for the states of love, peace and peace of mind, happiness, interest or engaging in stimulating activities (e.g. flow ), and prosperity – financial, intellectual, and experiential. MPP call these life’s meaningful strivings. Their antonyms are meaningless options, and should be avoided at all cost.
MPP also proposes that
- Love is a precondition to peace and peace of mind
- Love and peace are preconditions to happiness
- Love, peace, and happiness are preconditions to interest or engagement (e.g. flow)
- (Competent and responsible) Interest or engagement can be a source of love, peace, and happiness
- Interest is a precondition to (meaningful and genuine) prosperity (i.e. intellectual, financial, experiential)
The five meaningful life strivings (love, peace, happiness, interest, and prosperity) are not static states; rather, they are moods and dynamic processes. The five meaningful life strivings are standards for a successful life. The logoteleological loop is leveraged to aid individuals, groups, and organizations in self-regulation (through meaning discrepancy-reducing processes). This requires a well-thought out, consciously decided, and affectively  committed meaningful purpose or mission. Once an individual or group has committed to a meaningful purpose they are on their way to succeed with the aid of their innate self-regulation system.
The five meaningful life strivings, through their respective competencies , are known as The Path to a Meaningful Purpose, and become the standards for daily living. Students of Logoteleology are encouraged to choose and follow a meaningful life purpose that is aligned with the five meaningful and positive life strivings.
(Proposition 12) “There is a tension between the authentic, consciously intended purpose, and the unauthentic, scripted subconscious purpose.” Logoteleology does not subscribe to the belief that solely driving an individual toward the positive will somehow erase his or her pathologies and introjects (the unconscious adoption of the ideas or attitudes of others as if they were originally ours). The individual is encouraged to confront and to responsibly address her or his psychological meaningless life plans and scripts. A “script is the repetition in the here-and-now of archaic decisions that the child made in order to protect and fulfill his/her need for recognition.” This expectation is also consistent with Lewin’s theory on goal tension systems:
“Lewin assumed that behavior is goal driven. The first of Lewin’s clues is that adopting a goal sets up a tension state, which remains until the goal is satisfied or the individual gives up the goal (i.e., leaves the field). If the goal is unsatisfied and the goal is not given up, the tension remains, and behavior related to the goal will continue to re-emerge.”
MPP offers proprietary learning, consulting, coaching, counseling, and therapeutic approaches to surface, confront, and replace the meaningless with the meaningful.
We subscribe to the “viewpoint on self-regulation in which behavior is seen as reflecting processes of feedback control.” In relation to goals and standards, self-regulation entails subset operations such as:
- Self-observation or being self-aware, is the conscious capacity to have insight of one’s performance. Self-observation allows the individual to know what he or she is doing (the purpose in action) and why (the meaning).
- Self-reflection follows self-observation. It is a feedback process with two sub-tasks:
- Self-reference is the act of evaluating where the agent is in relation to the goal and desired outcome. It answers the efficiency-based question: “Where am I in relation to my plan and final target?”
- Self-evaluation is the calculation of the accuracy of one’s self-reference with the trajectory (path) and effort (self-determination) in relation to the goals and desired outcomes. It answers the effective-based question: “Am I on target?”
- Self-adjustment is the capacity and willingness to take corrective action in order to ensure effort is aligned with and supportive of the ultimate goal. It answers the question: “What action must I now take to stay on the right course and in order to achieve my goal?”
Who am I?
“Identity is what makes us recognizable to self and others. In other words, identity is how we self-describe and how others describe us. When we complete the sentence ‘I am ___,” we are defining our self-concept.” And self-defining describes the meaning we have given to the self. Webster’s New World College Dictionary describes self-definition as “the understanding or determination of one’s own nature or basic qualities”, and The American Heritage Dictionary’s explanation is “The definition of one’s identity, character, abilities, and attitudes by oneself.” Moreover, the term “self-concept” refers to how someone thinks about, evaluates or perceives her or himself. To be aware of oneself is to give meaning to one’s life. Baumeister provides the following definition for self-concept: “the individual’s belief about himself or herself, including the person’s attributes and who and what the self is.”
Why is the concept of identity relevant to Logoteleology? Because MPP aids individuals, groups, and organizations to answer the questions: “Who am I / are we?”, “What matters?”, “What is the meaning and purpose of my/our life?” and “How do I/we succeed in fulfilling my/our meaningful purpose?” All MPP interventions are designed to support the individual or group implement a self-determined, sensible, responsible, and meaningful life purpose.
According to Peter J. Burke and Jan E. Stets there are three identities: person, role and social.
- “Person identities are based on a view of the person as a unique entity, distinct from other individuals.”
- “A role is the set of expectations tied to a social position that guide people’s attitudes and behaviors.” ~ “A role identity is the internalized meanings of a role that individuals apply to themselves.”
- “A social identity is based on a person’s identification with a social group. A social group is a set of individuals who share the view that they are members of the same social category.”
MPP takes the following stand about people:
“Each person’s identity is different and unique and cannot be replicated. Think of how your life experience is different from other’s. Your view of the world is unique. Your presence on this planet is historically, psychologically, and physically distinct, exceptional, and irreplaceable. In other words, you are positively extraordinary. Your distinct and unique identity with all its potentiality cannot be duplicated. Fortunately, because you are unique, you are not expected by life to be an impersonator, or worse, an impostor. This is what makes human life priceless, the fact that no person can take another’s place or fulfill the duty that life asks of him or her to fulfill. Think about it: there is and will only be one model of each human being – past, present, and future. There is only one of you. What you are called to do by life no one can do in your stead.”
Hence, the task of life, according to MPP, is to be our true selves (person identity) as we assume roles (role identity) in support of the groups we belong to (social identity). We express our true selves when we self-determine our meaningful life purpose. In other words, we, as individuals, would proactively decide and commit our life to fulfill a positive and meaningful legacy through the roles we play in our (group / social) memberships. As such, again, MPP follows the eudaimonic approach, where the goal of life is to build one’s potential to the fullest extent for the highest good.
Life as a Meaningful or Worthwhile Task
MPP emerged as the result of a paradox, which I summarized in my book as: Mankind, I concluded, does not suffer from a lack of answers. Rather, it suffers despite the answers being available.
Logoteleology rejects the notion that we have to accept negative and demeaning conditions as part of our human reality. The meaningless path is a self-fulfilling prophesy that we all can – with meaningful determination – replace with and for the positive, the noble, and the edifying. Again, humanity does not lack solutions to its pressing social problems. We believe that what too many lack is the will to follow the meaningful and positive path. MPP researches, educates, coaches, and consults to help people, groups, and organizations discover what prevents them from following the positive and meaningful path, and to self-determine to act meaningfully. With such a mission, logoteleologists propose that life itself is a gift, and a worthwhile meaningful task to practice positive and meaningful behavior as a standard of living. The ultimate goal for humanity — we offer — is to achieve a universal state of love, peace, happiness, flow, and prosperity. The meaningless path is an unbearable thought and alternative to consider. We are convinced, based on empirical research and common sense, the meaningless path does not work, and will not ever benefit the quality of the human experience.
Logoteleology as a Source for Task Analysis and Growth
Life is (or should be) a meaningful task meant to achieve individual, group, organizational, and universal states of meaningfulness. We are always confronted with opportunities to practice the meaningful. While I do not have the space here to cover all the steps, here are some essentials in sequence:
- Select areas of study or research (and researchers) to learn from the group’s processes. (This process is known as “The Task”.)
- Determine what is meaningful and meaningless, and self-determine to follow the meaningful and positive path. This sets the individual and group’s life standards, and simplifies decision making.
- Each individual self-determines what her or his meaningful life purpose will be.
- Leveraging and building on your meaningful life purpose, construct meaningful purposes for your key social roles. For purposes of the IPPA W&O Division, we would answer questions such as: “What is the meaning of being a W&O Division member? What role will I play in the Division?” “How will I fulfill my meaningful life purpose through the work of the division?
- What meanings and competencies are required to succeed in the W&O Division? In my role?
- What support system will I/we require in order to remain self-aware and cognizant of being on track?
In MPP, communities of liked-minded individuals (those committed to living positively and meaningfully) are formed. The communities set goals and collaborate to work on tasks where each individual fulfills her or his meaningful life purpose through the role, leveraging innate strengths, and potential. Through the task, individuals learn and grow. From time to time the members of the group “suspend business” in order to assess progress, learn, and – if required — make new decisions.
Phileodependence: It is worth mentioning that, different from traditional methods, meaningful purpose community members don’t just cooperate or carry out occasional noble and transcendental actions. Innate in the MPP methodology, each member encourages and supports other group members’ expression of their strengths and talents. Further, MPP encourages colleagues to shape intrinsic conditions or create an environment where individual members can make full use of their potential, be their best, and achieve their meaningful life purpose — and always in non-intrusive ways.
In MPP we make the distinction between independence, interdependence, transcendence, and phileodependence or heartfelt consideration, support, and kinship. In phileodependence the individual never loses her or his sense of self. On the contrary, members behave in ways were the person identity or genuine self is discovered, decided, formed, encouraged to flourish and to thrive. While independence,interdependence, transcendence, and phileodependence are different, all four are essential in human life. We propose that phileodependence can best succeed through the practice of the Five Meaningful Strivings, and their competencies.
Phileodependence is very similar to the “Michelangelo Phenomenon” — usually applied and referring to a committed couple (e.g. marriage) — where one partner supports the other become her or his best. The difference is that phileodependence has a broader and a more inclusive application. In phileodependence all members are devoted to behave in ways to encourage the growth and fulfillment of all as a way of life.
Self-Study through the Task
As mentioned previously, members are encouraged to practice self-reflection and to conduct research during all phases of the work assignment (the task). It is important to scope the studies and follow rigorous and responsible methods.
Care must be taken not to burden the community with over-assessment. It is also important to follow a rigorous selection process to identify what studies will be carried out and by whom. The selection is a facilitated and democratic process versus impose from the top. Leveraging methodologies such as “Future Search” and “Appreciative Inquiry” is encouraged.
The group members can chose to participate in MPP learning experiences to deepen their insight on the dynamics of four diverse social elements; particularly the impact of:
- individuals in roles, groups, and organizations
- roles in individuals, groups and organizations
- groups in individuals, roles, and organizations
- organizations in groups, roles, and individuals
In addition to MPP learning experiences, other learning and intervention tools merit equal consideration. MPP learning experiences are briefly described immediately below. Also, Table 1 shares the dynamics of the four social elements.
Meaningful Purpose Laboratories
A laboratory is a place that provides opportunity for experimentation, observation, or practice in a field of study. Accordingly, participants of a Meaningful Purpose Laboratory research, practice, observe, evaluate, and learn how to form and sustain meaningful purpose communities that achieve their goals in a safe and uplifting setting. Participants are guided by practical experience and Meaningful Purpose Psychology theory. Learning is designed to have transferable applications to real life challenges and opportunities. Hence participants are encouraged to remain grounded on solving tangible challenges that will have a positive impact in their lives, groups, and organizations.
While there is a curriculum of learning laboratories in the Meaning Purpose Series, content can be customized to client needs. The learning series can be made available to individuals or groups who wish to consider meaningful purpose psychology methods for their improvement initiatives. This includes deepening insight and gaining pragmatic solutions to the previously mentioned areas of competence, as pointed out in the bullets above.
Table 1: Meaningful Purpose Psychology’s Field of Study, Resources, Method, and Goals
|Identity Category||Defined||Field of Study||Sample Goals|
|Individual||Unique entity and identity||Sample Questions:* What does it mean to be unique? * How am I unique? * What is the meaning and task of life?
* Identity Theory *Self-regulation psychology *Existential psychology (Empirical versus Philosophical) * Positi-ve psychology * Love psychology * Peace psychology * Happiness psychology
|* Identify and commit to what is meaningful in life. Disallow the meaningless (value selection)* Validate the value and dignity of human life* Embrace key competence themes for the meaningful* Identify and leverage the individual’s strengths, talents, potential, inclinations, limits, and barriers*Select a meaningful (e.g. positive) life purpose to fulfill* Goal to implement your meaningful life purpose|
|Role||Role of the individual in a group (2 or more people) and organization. Social membership||Sample Questions: * What does it mean to be a member of this group? * What rights, duties, and responsibilities do I have as a member of this group? * What is the goal of this role within this group? * What role will best help me fulfill my meaningful life purpose? * How will my role within this group allow me to fulfill my potential and be my best? * How will my role bring out the best in others? * What meanings and competencies are required of me/us in order to succeed?Empirical Grounding:
* Identity Theory*Logoteleology* Existential Psychology
* Tavistock’s Socio-Technical Systems
* Team theory
* Group Dynamics Theory
* Quality / Continuous Improvement Theory
* Task Analysis (IO Psychology)
|* Select groups and roles that are compatible and supportive of your life’s meaningful purpose* Commit to a meaningful purpose for the role so that you can clearly articulate the benefit of your duties and responsibilities.* Find your meaningful fit: Think of your role as a piece of a puzzle, and your team as the puzzle. How do you fit? How and when will you bring your strengths to bear in order to complete the picture and generate synergy?* Select SMART (specific, measurable, actionable, realistic, and time-bound) measures to assess your impact and contribution.* Determine how — through this role — you will improve as a human being and professional.|
|Group / Social||A collection of individuals||Sample Questions:* What brings this group of individuals together?* What is the price of admission? * How will we leverage diversity and conflict? * What noble and meaningful purpose will we achieve? * What are the collective strengths of the members?Empirical Grounding: * Positive Psychology * Identity Theory *Logoteleology * Existential Psycho-logy * Tavistock’s Socio-Technical Systems * Team theory
* Group Dynamics Theory
* Quality / Continuous Improvement Theory
|* Learn and practice forming positive, meaningful, and healthy communities* Leverage the group to deepen insight into your meanings and competencies* Manage paradox and conflict* Fulfill your meaningful life purpose through the task of the group / team|
|Organization / System||A collection of groups||Sample Questions:* How will we implement the proposition that organizations are meant to serve people rather than people are meant to serve the organization?* How do we ensure that both financial and humane goals are reached without achieving one at the expense of the other?* How will we achieve in a balanced, reasonable, and responsible way the needs of all stakeholders?* What is the positive, noble and meaningful purpose we will achieve?* What will be our long-term legacy?Empirical Grounding:* Organization Development (Logoteleology)* Positive Psychology* I/O Psychology* Systems theories* Organizational Theory* Strategic Thinking and Planning
* Appreciative Inquiry
* Future Search
|* Learn how to generate, reinforce, and sustain mutually beneficial, meaningful and thriving organizations.* Learn how to create adaptive systems that respond well to stakeholder demands.* Practice being a creative and innovative trend-setter for the positive and meaningful* Discover the difference and balance between leadership and management (we lead people and manage things)|
Different from other methods, in Logoteleology’s approach to organization and group development, and organizational theory, organizations exist to serve people, and not the other way around. Humans are never objects, tools, and property. Rather, humans possess dignity and are valuable sources of and for the meaningful. In MPP method, it is unethical to objectify people. Instead, all efforts are oriented to edify individuals.
[i] Frankl, Viktor E., The Will to Meaning: Foundations and Applications of Logotherapy. (New York: Meridian, 1998), 62, 60
 Senge, Peter, et. al The Fifth Discipline Field Book. New York: Doubleday. 1994
 Lewin, Kurt. Resolving Social Conflicts & Field Theory in Social Science. Washington, D.C: American Psychological Association, 1997.
 Amado, Giles, Ambrose Anthony, Amato Rachel, Eds. The Transitional Approach to Change (Harold Bridger Series). London: Karnac Books Ltd, 2004.
 Marrero, Luis A. The Path to a Meaningful Purpose: Psychological Foundations of Logoteleology. Bloomington: IUniverse LCC. 2013.
 Luis A. Marrero, The Path to a Meaningful Purpose, 76
 Dweck, Carol S., Self-Theories: Their Role in Motivation, Personality, and Development. (Philadelphia, 2000), xi
 While MPP is primarily focused in prevention and growth, it also has a method to treat psychological dissonance through coaching and therapy known as logoteleotherapy or “healing through meaningful purpose.” Logoteleotherapy must not be confused with logotherapy.
 Bogdan, Radu J., Grounds for Cognition (Hillsdale, New jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., 1994, 123
 Ansbacher, Heinz L. and Ansbacher, Rowena R., ed, The Individual Psychology of Alfred Adler (Basic Books; First Edition, First Printing edition, 1956), 89.
 Huckabay, Mary Ann. “An Overview of the Theory and Practice of Gestalt Group Process.” Gestalt Theory: Perspective and Applications (New York: Gardner Press, Inc. 1992). 302
 Rychlack, Joseph F. Logical Learning Theory: A Human Teleology and Its Empirical Support (Lincoln: Univeristy of Nebraska Press, 1994), 8
 Joseph F. Rychlack, Logical Learning Theory, 37.
 Csikszentmihalyi, Mihaly. Flow: The Psychology of Optimal Experience. New York: Harper & Row, 1990.
 There are three broad categories of meaningful competencies: allow, cooperate, and transcend.
 Claude, Steiner, Scripts People Live (New York: Grove Press 1974), 69.
 Tesser, A., L. Martin, and D. Cornell, “On the Substitutability of Self-Protective Mechanisms.” Gollwitzer, Peter M., and John A Bargh, Eds. The Psychology of Action (New York: Guilford Press, 1996), 51
 Carver Charles S. and Michael F. Scheier. “Self-Regulation of Action and Affect.” Vohs, Kathleen D. and Roy F. Baumeister, Eds. Handbook of Self-Regulation: Research, Theory, and Applications (Second Edition). (New York: The Guildford Press, 2011), 3
 Luis A. Marrero, The Path to a Meaningful Purpose, 27 – 28.
 Baumeister, R. F. (Ed.) (1999). The self in social psychology. Philadelphia, PA: Psychology Press (Taylor & Francis).
 Burke, Peter J. and Jan E. Stets, Identity Theory (New York: Oxford University Press, 2009), 3, 112 – 29.
 Ibid., 112
 Ibid., 114
 Ibid., 118
 Luis A. Marrero, The Path to a Meaningful Purpose, 31
 Ibid., 3
 I recommend: Whitney, Diana, et.al. Encyclopedia of Positive Questions: Using Appreciative Inquiry to Bring Out the Best in Your Organization. 2nd Edition. (Brunswick, Ohio: Crown Custom Publishing, 2013)
Copyright 2015. Luis A. Marrero. Boston Institute for Meaningful Purpose